Optimization of fluoride in water using alum with response surface methodology


Hamzeh Ali Jamali 1 , Kavoos Dindarloo 2 , * , Reyhaneh Jabbari 3


1 Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Health, Social Determinant in Health Promotion Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

3 MSc of Department of Envronmental Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.


Hormozgan Medical Journal: 19 (5); e87613
Published Online: March 17, 2014
Article Type: Research Article
Received: January 07, 2014
Accepted: March 17, 2014




Introduction: Fluoride counts an essential element for human health. Therefore, both
low and excessive concentrations of that element in drinking water may cause health
problems for the consumers. The present study aims to optimize fluoride base in drinking
water using Alum response surface methodology.
Methods: The present study is an analytical research which uses surface response method
based on Bax Banken model for the optimizing of variable effects in elimination of
drinking water fluoride where Spectrophotometer (UNICO-(UV/VIS), model 2150
according to the method of SPADNS presented in standard methods for the examination
of water and wastewater has been employed. Three variables of initial concentration of
fluoride, PH, and Alum were studied in three levels (+1, 0,-1). The required numbers of
samples were 17 according to the model. Experimental results were analyzed using
Design Expert 7 software. The experiments were carried out randomly in order to the
elimination of systematic error. The research data were analyzed using multiple regression
and coefficients as well as ANOVA where (P≤0.05) determined as significant level.
Results: The results showed that initial concentration of fluoride, PH, and Alum are
effective in determining the optimal sitaation. Each of these factors increases the efficiency
of fluoride elimination to a certain level and after that which the efficiency decreases. In
this process optimal conditions included initial concentration of fluoride3.25 mg/L, PH
6.55, and Alum concentration of 166 mg/L where in an efficient condition. Fluoride
elimination equal to 76.83% with a desirability of 97.2%.
Conclusion: The results showed good agreement wbetween experimental and model
predictions. It can be concluded that response surface methodology is a useful method for
optimization of operating factors for the process of coagulation.


Fluride Water Alum

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