Detection of malathion and chlorpyrifos resistance mechanism in German cockroaches (Blattella germanica, Insecta: Blattodea: Blattellidae) using piperonyl butoxide and tributyl phosphorotrithioate

AUTHORS

Azim Paksa 1 , Hossein Ladonni 2 , Hassan Nasirian 3 , *

AUTHORS INFORMATION

1 MSc Student of Medical Entomology & Vector Control, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor Department of Entomology & Vector Control, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 PhD Student of Entomology & Vector Control, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

ARTICLE INFORMATION

Hormozgan Medical Journal: 15 (3); e88492
Published Online: February 27, 2011
Article Type: Research Article
Received: May 24, 2010
Accepted: February 27, 2011

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Abstract

Introduction: German cockroach (Blattella germanica, Insecta: Blattodea: Blattellidae) is
considered one of the most common household pests which can transfer pathogenic agents and
also cause allergic reactions. Frequent and uncontrolled spraying caused resistance in German
cockroach to insecticides. In this study we aimed, to determine the malathion and chlorpyrifos
resistance mechanism of German cockroaches using piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S, S, Stributyl
phosphorotrithioate (DEF) by surface contact.
Methods: Eight wild strains of German cockroach were collected by hand catch and trap,
and transferred to the insectarium and reared in special glass breeding containers. The
susceptible strain was used to compare the results of wild strains to the mentioned strain.. At
first the discriminative doses of malathion and chlorpyrifos were determined. 179.14 mg/m2
and 6.63 mg/m2 at 30 minutes of contact were considered as the discriminative doses of
malathion and chlorpyrifos, respectively. Then the susceptibility level and resistance type
mechanisms of collected strains to mentioned insecticides using PBO and DEF synergists
were studied by surface contact method simultaneously at 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 ratios of
synergists and insecticides, respectively. For data analysis ANOVA method was used.
Results: The results showed that all wild strains had a degree of resistance to chlorpyrifos and
malathion that showed significant differences compared to susceptible strain (P<0.05). Using
the 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 synergistie in chlorpyrifos insecticide-resistant strains, the mortality rate
was increased 5-10%, 5-19.5% and 5-20%, respectively (P<0.05). In malathion insecticideresistant
strains, the mortality rate was increased 2.5-80%, 2.5-100% and 2.5-100%,
respectively (P<0.05). In addition, significant differences between proportions of ratios of
PBO with chlorpyrifos was observed (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Possibly other mechanisms such as reduction of cuticle penetration or
acetyl cholinesterase enzyme insensitive resistance could be involved.

Keywords

German Cockroach - Malation - Chlorpyrifos - Resistance

© 2011, Hormozgan Medical Journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
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