Socio-demographic characteristics of passive smokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke and the influence of community-based interventions on its reduction in Isfahan, Najaf Abad and Arak


Roya Kelishadi 1 , Javad Javaheri 2 , * , Hamidreza Roohafza 3 , Golamhossein Sadri 4 , Babak Eshrati 5


1 Associate Professor Department of Pediatrics, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

2 Resident, Department of Community Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

3 Psychologist, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor Department of Community Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

5 Assistant Professor Department of Epidemiology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.


Hormozgan Medical Journal: 11 (4); e89721
Published Online: February 09, 2008
Article Type: Research Article
Received: October 02, 2007
Accepted: February 09, 2008




Introduction: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) inhaled by passive smokers
cause health problems such as lung cancer, ischemic heart disease and asthma in
adults and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), asthma, fetal growth retardation
and neurodevelopment problems in children. The goal of this study was to
determine socio-demographic characteristics of passive smokers exposed to ETS
and evaluate community-oriented intervention effects on reduction of ETS in
cities of Isfahan, Najaf Abad and Arak.
Methods: This study is a part of Isfahan healthy heart program (IHHP) in which
12600 adult and 4000 children and adolescents residing in cities of Isfahan, Najaf
Abad and Arak were selected via multistage sampling. Demographic data,
duration of exposure to cigarette smoke and place of exposure information were
collected by standardized questionnaire. Community-based interventions for
reduction of ETS in passive smokers were implanted in Isfahan and Najaf Abad
as cases to be compared with Arak as control. Data were analyzed using t-test,
Chi-square test and ANOVA, Via SPSS statistical software.
Results: During 3 consecutive years of evaluation, frequency of ETS shows a
remarkable decrease in the case and control cities (P<0.0001). Mean ETS
exposure time in minute per week reduced significantly in case and control cities
after intervention years. ETS inhalation was noticeably higher in singles,
divorced and university students than others (P<0.0001).
Conclusion: The considerable high prevalence of ETS exposure in age group of
the juvenile, students and unmarried individuals indicate that their household,
educational and vocational environments are polluted and this can facilitate
confronting diseases and potentially regarding active smokers. Extensive
interventions regarding reduction of this trend should be a priority of community
health programs.


Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) – Socio Demographic Characteristics – Passive Smoker – Community Based Interventions

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