The comparison effects of eight weeks spark and frenkel exercises on static and dynamic balance in the blinds


Siavash Rajabi 1 , Bijan Goodarzi 2 , Maryam Mazidi 3 , *

1 Dep a rtment of Sport Injuries and Corrective Exercise s , Boroujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Boroujerd, Iran.

2 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences , Boroujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Boroujerd, Iran.

3 Department of Sport Injuries and Cor r ective Exer cises , Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

How to Cite: Rajabi S , Goodarzi B , Mazidi M . The comparison effects of eight weeks spark and frenkel exercises on static and dynamic balance in the blinds, Hormozgan Med J. 2017 ; 20(6):e87363. doi: 10.18869/acadpub.hmj.20.6.401.


Hormozgan Medical Journal: 20 (6); e87363
Published Online: February 28, 2017
Article Type: Research Article
Received: December 26, 2016
Accepted: February 28, 2017




Introduction: One of the most important human senses is vision, which its loss is causing many primary and secondary complications for physical and psychological health such as difficulties in static and dynamic balance. This study aimed to compare the effect of 8 weeks of Spark and Frenkel exercises training on the static and dynamic balance in blind people.

Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 30 blind people with no other disabilities aged between 15 and 49 years old were randomly assigned to three groups of control (n=10), Spark (n=10) and Frenkel (n=10). At first, a pre-test of static balances and dynamic balance were performed for all three groups; Spark Group received Spark program exercises and Frenkel group received Frenkel exercises for two months, with no intervention for the control group. After two months, the required post-test exercise protocols were performed. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21. Paired t-test, ANOVA, and independent t-test were used to analyze the data.

Results: The results indicated that both Frenkel and Spark training programs had a significant effect on static and dynamic balance of the blind, but Frenkel exercises had a greater influence on the dynamic balance.

Conclusion: It seems that Frenkel and Spark training program are useful and effective methods to enhance static and dynamic balance in bilind people.


Spark Exercise Frenkel Exercises Static Balance Dynamic Balance Blindness

© 2017, Hormozgan Medical Journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.



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