An overview and mapping of Malaria and its vectors in Iran

AUTHORS

Abdoreza Salahi Moghaddam 1 , Alireza Khoshdel 2 , Mohammad Barati 3 , Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat 4 , *

1 Associate Professor Department of Medical Parasitology, Infectious & Tropical Diseases Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

2 Associate Professor Department of Epidemiology, Geomatics Research Center, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor Department of Medical Parasitology, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

4 Associate Professor Department of Enthomology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

How to Cite: Salahi Moghaddam A, Khoshdel A, Barati M, Sedaghat M M. An overview and mapping of Malaria and its vectors in Iran, Hormozgan Med J. 2014 ; 18(5):e87725.

ARTICLE INFORMATION

Hormozgan Medical Journal: 18 (5); e87725
Published Online: May 04, 2014
Article Type: Research Article
Received: February 15, 2014
Accepted: May 04, 2014

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Abstract

Introduction: In spite of public health level improvement in Iran, Malaria is still an important health problem in the southeast corner of the country. Mapping distribution of endemic diseases with their relations to geographical factors has become important for public health experts. This study was carried out to provide the distribution maps of the geographical pathology of Malaria in Iran with emphasis on its vectors.
Methods: A systematic literature review was performed and the data and/or metadata were used for evaluation of findings. All available articles and books were used for mapping vectors and parasites, data of Malaria cases were obtained from Iran Center for Diseases Control, Ministry of Health in 2010. Incidence or prevalence of the diseases and also scientific names of vectors with collection details were arranged and mapped as a shapefile in ArcGIS software. Results: About 28 different Anopheles species are found in Iran. Seven maps provided for the main vectors in the country. Distribution maps generated for Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax and co- infection cases. Distribution maps of transmission and endemic areas are provided. Out of 11668 indigenous and transmitted malaria from imported cases in three years leading to 2010, about 9400 cases occurred in south parts of the country where the weather is influenced by Afrotropical zoogeographic region, while 2200 cases occurred in the southeast corner of the country where the weather is influenced by Indo-malayan and only 25 cases were reported in the typical Palearctic area of Iran.
Conclusion: Most malaria cases occurred in the southeast corner in Sistan Baluchistan, Hormozgan and south parts of Kerman. There are similarities between malaria transmission conditions in Iran and many tropical and subtropical countries. Such information on vectors, incidence of all cases and environmental factors can be used to set a Malaria Early Warning System and help to prevent and control of malaria.

Keywords

Malaria – Anopheles – Mapping - Iran

© 2014, Hormozgan Medical Journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.

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