Correlation between smoking and severity of periodontal disease in patients with periodontitis in Kerman


Molouk Torabi 1 , * , Sanali Karimi 2 , Marziyeh Karimi Afshar 3

1 Assistant Professor Department of Maxillofacial, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor Department of Periodontics, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

3 Dental Student, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

How to Cite: Torabi M, Karimi S, Karimi Afshar M. Correlation between smoking and severity of periodontal disease in patients with periodontitis in Kerman, Hormozgan Med J. 2008 ; 11(4):e89720.


Hormozgan Medical Journal: 11 (4); e89720
Published Online: March 08, 2008
Article Type: Research Article
Received: October 17, 2007
Accepted: March 08, 2008




Introduction: Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease of dental
supporting tissues caused by bacteria, leading to inflammation, irreversible gum
attachment loss, and alveolar bone destruction and eventually tooth loss. While
infection is a necessary prerequisite for developing periodontitis, its course and
severity depend on a number or factors including inheritance, health behaviors
and environmental conditions. Smoking is one the major environmental factors in
acquiring periodontitis. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of
smoking on severity of periodontal disease in 20-50 years old patients referred to
Kerman health centers.
Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study conducted on 384
20-50 years old patients with chronic periodontitis, referred to health centers that
were selected by multistage sampling. Data collection was done by questionnaire
and clinical examination of patients. The questionnaire included demographic
data and tobacco use in form of cigarette and hookah. Patients were clinically
examined by flat dental mirror and Williams probe. Data were analyzed by Chi-
Square and ANOV tests.
Results: There were 39.4% men and 60.6% women with mean age of
28.3%±6.22 years old. 39% and 17.9% subjects used cigarette and hookah,
respectively. The clinical attachment loss was as follows: 3.5 millimeters or less
in 41.1%, 3.5-5.5 millimeters in 48.4% and more than 5.5 millimeters in 10.4%
of cases. A statistically significant correlation was observed between severity of
periodontal disease and both of cigarette and hookah use (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The results show that tobacco must be considered as an important
risk factor in treatment plan of patients with periodontitis.


Periodontitis – Risk Factor - Tobacco

© 2008, Hormozgan Medical Journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.



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